Monday, 10 December 2012

Relationship of job characteristics to job involvement, satisfaction, and intrinsic motivation.

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Findings of the research articles on the topic “Relationship between organizational attitude and behavior (job satisfaction, job involvement and organization commitment) and work motivation.

Relationship of job characteristics to job involvement, satisfaction, and intrinsic motivation.
Administered questionnaires to 291 scientists working in research and development laboratories. Results of a factor analysis indicate that job-involvement attitudes, higher order need-satisfaction attitudes, and intrinsic-motivation attitudes should be thought of as separate and distinct kinds of attitudes toward a job. These 3 types of attitudes related differentially to job design factors and to job behavior. Satisfaction proved to be related to such job characteristics as the amount of control the job allowed the holder and the degree to which it is seen to be relevant to the holder's valued abilities. Satisfaction was not related to either self-rated effort or performance. Job involvement, like satisfaction, bore a significant relationship to certain job characteristics; unlike satisfaction, however, involvement was positively related to self-rated effort. Intrinsic motivation was less strongly related to the job characteristics measured, but was more strongly related to both effort and performance than was either satisfaction or involvement. 
Intermediate linkages in the relationship between job satisfaction and employee turnover.
The relationship between job satisfaction and turnover is significant and consistent, but not particularly strong.
Organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and turnover among psychiatric technicians.
Studied changes across time in measures of organizational commitment and job satisfaction as each related to subsequent turnover among 60 recently employed psychiatric technician trainees. A longitudinal study across a 101/2-mo period was conducted, with attitude measures (Organizational Commitment Questionnaire and Job Descriptive Index) collected at 4 points in time. Results of a discriminant analysis indicate that significant relationships existed between certain attitudes held by employees and turnover. Relationships between attitudes and turnover were found in the last 2 time periods only, suggesting that such relationships are strongest at points in time closest to when an individual leaves the organization. Organizational commitment discriminated better between stayers and leavers than did the various components of job satisfaction.

Work Motivation and Performance: A Social Identity Perspective

Work motivation and performance were analysed from the perspective of social identity theory and self-categorisation theory. Central in this analysis is the relation of organisational identification with the motivation to exert effort on behalf of the collective. A theoretical analysis as well as a review of empirical studies of the relationship of organisational identification with motivation and performance leads to the conclusion that identification is positively related to work motivation, task performance, and contextual performance to the extent that (a) social identity is salient, and (b) high performance is perceived to be in the group’s or organisation’s interest.
Are Employee Motivation, Commitment and Job Involvement Inter-related: Evidence from Banking Sector of Pakistan.
Well motivated and committed employees with high levels of  job  involvement are considered to be the most important asset for any organization which serves as key to quality and productivity improvements. The current research study attempts to find the association among three important job related behavior of employees i.e. motivation, commitment and job involvement. Present study was conducted in banking sector of Pakistan. 400 banking personnel were randomly selected and responses were sought out from them by means of questionnaire. Out of total 400 distributed questionnaires, 305 were received back and 285 were considered as valid and then analyzed using SPSS 16. A significant but somewhat weak positive relationship of motivation, commitment and job involvement was found with each other.  Some important implications for future research are also derived from the study.

The relationship between employee motivation and job involvement.
The study aims to assess the current level of, and relationship between, employee motivation and job involvement.  This cross-sectional study was undertaken in a financial institution from which 145 employees were drawn using a simple random sampling technique. Data was collected using the Employee Motivation Questionnaire (Fourie, 1989) and the Job Involvement Questionnaire (Lodahl and Kejner, 1965) and, was analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics.  The results indicate that significant intercorrelations exist amongst the majority of dimensions and sub-dimensions of employee motivation and job involvement.

Job motivation and organizational commitment among the health professionals: A questionnaire survey
The objective of this study is to investigate the level of organizational commitment and motivation as well as the relationship between health staff’s organizational commitment and motivation within state hospitals. Using the Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), the relationships between the organizational commitment and motivation were examined. Data for this study were obtained through a questionnaire. The questionnaire was applied to health professionals working in state hospitals by using the “Organizational Commitment Questionnaire” and the “Motivation Questionnaire”. Within this scope, the organizational commitment levels of the health professionals were analyzed in three dimensions which are emotional commitment, continuance commitment and normative commitment and the motivation levels of the health professionals were examined in two dimensions: intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. The results indicated that intrinsic motivation of health professionals was explained mostly by affective and normative commitment. Also affective and normative commitment impact on intrinsic motivation was more than continuance commitment. The most effective factor on extrinsic motivation was normative commitment. Continuance commitment had effect on extrinsic motivation less than normative commitment. Also it was seen that the affective commitment had the lowest effect on external motivation. 
References
Edward, L. & Douglas, H. (1970). Relationship of job characteristics to job involvement, satisfaction, and intrinsic motivationJournal of Applied Psychology, 54, 305-312.
William, M. H. Intermediate linkages in the relationship between job satisfaction and employee turnover. (1970). Journal of Applied Psychology, 55, 411-418.
Porter, L. W.; Steers, R, M.; Mowday, R. T. & Boulian, P. V. (1977). Organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and turnover among psychiatric technicians. Journal of Applied Psychology, 62,  237-240.

Knippenberg, D. V. (2000). Work Motivation and Performance: A Social Identity Perspective.  Applied Psychology, 49, 357-371.

Mohsin, F.; Nawaz, M.; Khan, S.; Shoukat, Z. & Aslam, N. (2004). Are Employee Motivation, Commitment and Job Involvement Inter-related: Evidence from Banking Sector of Pakistan. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 2, 217-226.

Govender, S. & Sanjana, B. (2010). The relationship between employee motivation and job involvement. South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences, 13, 513-519.

Altindis, S. (2011). Job motivation and organizational commitment among the health professionals: A questionnaire survey. African Journal of Business Management, 5(21),8601-8609.  
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2 comments:

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